The first castles were built in Scotland in the 11th and 12th centuries, with the introduction of Norman influence. These motte and bailey castles were replaced with the first stone-built castles around 1200. By the late 14th century, the large curtain-walled castles had begun to give way to more modest tower houses, vertical dwellings with less formidable defences. This type of vertical house continued to be popular with Scotland's landowning class through to the late 17th century, when classical architecture made its first appearance in the country. Meanwhile the advance of artillery pressed military engineers to devise stronger fortifications for important royal strongholds. In the late 18th century, medieval architecture was revived, and castle-style houses were built once more. These "castles" had no defensive capability, but drew on military and tower-house architecture for their decorative detail.
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