Hanoi was settled and ruled by Chinese conquerors for over 1000 years until 1010. In 1010 Ly Thai To, the first ruler of the Ly dynasty (1009–1225) of Vietnam, chose Hanoi (Thang Long) as his capital. It remained the main capital of Vietnam until 1802, when the last Vietnamese dynasty, the Nguyen (1802–1945), transferred the capital south to Hue. Under French rule,it was made the capital of French Indochina in 1902. Hanoi remained the administrative centre during the Japanese occupation (1940–45) of the territory.Following the Japanese surrender, the Viet Minh under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh seized power in Hanoi, and the city was established as the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. During the Vietnam War, the bombing of Hanoi by the United States in 1965, 1968, and 1972 caused massive damage. Following the collapse of South Vietnam on April 30, 1975, North Vietnam extended its control over all of Vietnam. In 2010 Hanoi celebrated 1000 years of Vietnamese rule.
© Ramdas Iyer Photography